Background: Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver, and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. The efficacy of antineoplastic drugs is closely tied to the administered dosage and therapeutic blood and tissue levels of the agent. To maintain the balance between treatment efficacy and side effects, clinicians need to adjust the dose of renally cleared anticancer drugs using a surrogate of renal function, the estimated GFR. Although the higher incidence of cancer is in developed countries, 70% of cancer-related deaths occur in developing countries. Economically, cancer prevention and early detection measures would significantly reduce the cost of total medical care provided for cancer patients. Aim of the study: To assess the awareness and knowledge among hemodialysis patients regarding the warning signs and symptoms of cancer in king Abdul-Aziz specialized hospital, King Faisal Medical Complex Taif city. Method: A cross-sectional study design was used. The current study was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz specialized hospital, King Faisal Medical Complex Taif City. A simple random technique was used. The total sample size calculation will be 200 patients on hemodialysis. Results: the majority of participants were weak knowledge proportions (65.5%) while average knowledge about signs and symptoms were (27.0%) but the high knowledge proportions (7.5%) While the Range (0–9) Mean±SD (3.455±2.594). Conclusion: Although it is tempting to apply cancer-screening protocols that are recommended for the general population to dialysis patients, approach to cancer screening in dialysis patients is required and should be based on the patient's cancer risk factors, expected survival, and transplant status. Surveys that address the effectiveness of cancer screening by dialysis units do a disservice to the nephrology community.