Archive \ Volume.10 2019 Issue 1

Evaluation of Recent Updates Regarding Diagnosis and Management of Croup in Children

Raed Abdulaziz Alsaeed , Nesreen Ahmad Aljehani , Alhanouf Faisal Alabdali , Noha Saad Alyazidi , Fatimah A.I Almuhanna , Ziyad F. A. Alotaibi , Ibtisam H. Alkhamis , Fatimah M. Alnemer , Hussain M.A. Alsumur , Jassim M.A. Aljaryan , Albara O.A. Alsalmi
Abstract

Background: All over the world, croup is a common upper respiratory infection of childhood, which is easily treated if recognized and assessed properly. Nevertheless, it can be severe enough to cause respiratory failure. This disease is actually considered one of the top causes of respiratory failure in children in some parts of the world. Viral Croup affects patients between 6 months to 6 years of age. In most of the cases, Parainfluenza virus is the most common cause of infection. Objective: This study aimed to discuss croup in terms of its etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, assessment, and finally management. Methods: We searched PubMed for (((Croup) AND Etiology) OR Pathogenesis) OR Presentation) OR Management))). Conclusion: Croup is a common upper respiratory tract infection, which is usually viral in etiology. Most patients are in the young pediatric age group. It typically presents with stridor, cough, and hoarseness. Patients may present with a history of low-grade fever, but it is not necessary for diagnosis. Laboratory and imaging studies have no importance and no added value on the management plan outcomes. In the case of a suspected alternative diagnosis, diagnostic modalities may be used. The use of a single dose of dexamethasone improves symptoms. In case of moderate to severe symptoms, the addition of nebulized epinephrine improves symptoms and decreases the length of hospitalization.