The present research was pointed to the protective impact of anthocyanin and betalain dye of pomegranate juice (P), beetroot juice (BR), and their mixture (PB) versus Ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma (EAC)-bearing female mice. Female mice were orally administrated with pomegranate, beetroot juices and their mixture (1 ml/ day), for sequential 15 days then, injected (i.p) by EAC. Cisplatin drug was injected two times as a comparative chemical drug. The results manifested that P BR and PB juices as anthocyanin and betalain dye sources significantly enhanced biological evaluation. Juice mixture induced significant decrement of the liver functions. Pomegranate and mixture juices have significantly decrement of undesirable blood lipids, versus increment benefit HDL and have major power to decrement of tumor cell count. Hence, the current study confirmed that these plant foods which have red dye can significantly protect the cells from EAC and improve the biochemical analysis and biological evaluation of the experimental animals.
1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016;66(1):7-30.
2. Eltayeb LB, Al-Zahrani SA, Al-Hoechel LH, Ali H. Bacteriological and Parasitological Assessment of Apparently Healthy Food Handlers at Al-Kharj Province/KSA: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study. Int J Pharm Phytopharmacol Res. 2020;10(4):103-11.
3. Quang MT, Le KM, Nguyen TT, Nguyen TV, Tran TQ, Thieu HH, et al. Microrna-21 and the role of anti-apoptosis in human Cancers. Pharmacophore. 2020;11(3):78-81.
4. Uddin I, Rachana N, Suraj N, Naveena N, Mounica P. Screening anti-cancer activity of colchicine loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Pharmacophore. 2019;10(2):37-42.
5. DiMarco-Crook Ch, Xiao H. Diet-based strategies for cancer chemoprevention: The role of combination regimens using dietary bioactive components. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2015;6:505-26.
6. Key TJ, Schatzkin A, Willett WC, Allen NE, Spencer EA, Travis RC. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(1a):187-200.
7. Barnard RJ. Prevention of cancer through lifestyle changes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2004;1(3):233-9.
8. Sharma P, McClees SF, Afaq F. Pomegranate for prevention and treatment of cancer: An update. Molecules. 2017;22(1):177.
9. Kunnumakkara AB. Anticancer Properties of Fruits and Vegetables. A Scientific Review, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.; 2015.
10. Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, et al. Critical review: Vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51(6):637-63.
11. Sauvaget C, Nagano J, Hayashi M, Spencer E, Shimizu Y, Allen N. Vegetables and fruit intake and cancer mortality in the Hiroshima/Nagasaki Life Span Study. Br J Cancer. 2003;88(5):689-94.
12. Motaa AA, Shaker S. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of standardized whole fruit, pulp, and peel extracts of Egyptian pomegranate. Open Conf Proc J. 2011;2(1):41-5.
13. SathibabuUddandrao VV, BrahmanaiduParim PR, Nivedha K, Swapna Rameshreddy P, Vadivukkarasi S, Shabana Begum M, et al. Anticancer activity of pomegranate extract: effect on hematological and antioxidant profile against Ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. Orient Pharm Exp Med. 2019;19(3):243-50.
14. Howell AB, D’Souza DH. The pomegranate: effects on bacteria and viruses that influence human health. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:606212.
15. Ismail T, Sestili P, Akhtar S. Pomegranate peel and fruit extracts: A review of potential anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143(2):397-405.
16. Lansky EP, Newman RA. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109(2):177-206.
17. Rosenblat M, Hayek T, Aviram M. Anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption by diabetic patients on serum and macrophages. Atherosclerosis. 2006;187(2):363-71.
18. Hoffman-Censits J, Fu M. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies: Are we making progress in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Semin Oncol 2013;40(3):361-74.
19. Aviram M, Kaplan M, Rosenblat M, Fuhrman B. Dietary antioxidants and paraoxonases against LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis development. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005;(170):263-300.
20. Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA. Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juice and its Relationship with Phenolic Composition and Processing. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48(10):4581-9.
21. Lim TK, Medicinal E. Non-Medicinal Plants. 10thed. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg, New York London; 2016.
22. Ptatosz N, Sawicki T, Wiczkowski W. Profile of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids of Red Beet and Its Fermentation Products. Does Long-Term Consumption of Fermented Beetroot Juice Affect Phenolics Profile in Human Blood Plasma and Urine? Pol J Food Nutr Sci. 2020;70(1):55-65.
23. Chhikara N, Kushwaha K, Sharma P, Gat Y, Panchal A. Bioactive Compounds of Beetroot and Utilization in Food Processing Industry: A Critical Review. Food Chem. 2019;272:192-200.
24. Carrillo C, Rey R, Hendrickx M, Del Mar Cavia M, Alonso-Torre S. Antioxidant capacity of beetroot: traditional vs novel approaches. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017;72(3):266-73.
25. Raikos V, McDonagh A, Ranawana V, Duthie G. Processed beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) as a natural antioxidant in mayonnaise: effects on physical stability, texture, and sensory attributes. Food Sci Human Wellness. 2016;5(4):191-8.
26. Seidi K, Jahanban RE, Abasi M, Mesgari MA. Anti-Tumoral Properties of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) Seed Extract in Different Human Cancer Cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(3):1119-22.
27. Sudhakar S, Venugopal D, Vignesh D, Karthikeyan S. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of the Pomegranate and Their Role in Cancer Prevention and Therapy. Int J Life Sci Res. 2015;3:77-84.
28. Bassiri-Jahromi Sh. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention. Oncol Rev. 2018;12(1):345.
29. John FL, Gary DS. Red Beetroot and Betalains as Cancer Chemopreventative Agents. Molecules. 2019;24(8):1602.
30. Meera S, Mehrzad S. Screening of beetroot juice for anticancer activity. World J Pharm Res. 2016;5(6):1011-22.
31. Sohair RF, Khadiga G. Establishing the first institutional animal care and use committee in Egypt. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2016;11(1):1-6.
32. Lala PK, Santer V, Rahil KS. Spontaneous fusion between Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and host cells in vivo: kinetics of hybridization, and concurrent changes in the histocompatibility profile of the tumor after propagation in different host strains. Eur J Cancer. 1980;16(4):487-510.
33. Herawati VE, Fuad A, Pinandoyo P, Hutabarat J, Darmanto YS, Wirasatriya A, et al. Maggot Meal (Hermetia illucens) Substitution on Fish Meal as Source of Animal Protein to Growth, Feed Utilization Efficiency, and Survival Rate of Milkfish (Chanos chanos). HAYATI J Biosci. 2020;27(2):154-65.
34. Ijioma SN, Osim EE, Nwankwo AA, Nwosu OC, Umezurike CB, Nwawuba NI. Relative Organ Weights and Histological Changes in Wistar Rats Treated with a South East Nigerian Polyherbal Formulation (Ajumbise). Int J Biochem Res Rev. 2018;21(3):1-10.
35. Yatzidis HLJ. Effect of disease on clinical Estimation of total protein Clin. Clin Chem. 1987;23:908.
36. Anyanwu CF, Aigbogun Jr EO, Joseph TO. Evaluation of the Liver Enzyme (AST, ALT & ALP) Levels of Adult HIV Patients on HAART in UPTH. Annu Res Rev Biol. 2020:34-41.
37. Young DS, Thomas DW, Friedman RB, Pestaner LC. Effects of drugs on clinical laboratory tests. Clin Chem. 1972;18(10):1041-303.
38. Alsoodeeri FN, Alqabbani HM, Aldossari NM. Effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) Consumption on Serum Lipid Profiles in Albino Rats. J Lipids. 2020;2020:1-7.
39. Fossati P, Principe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem. 1982;28(10):2077-80.
40. Kathiriya A, Das K, Kumar EP, Mathai KB. Evaluation of antitumor and antioxidant activity of Oxalis Corniculata Linn. Against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma on Mice. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2010;3(4):157-65.
41. Armitage P, Berry G. Statistical Methods in medical research. Meckwell, Oxford, UK. 1987; 93-213 pp.
42. Qamar AS, Zara B, Rizwan S, Tahir Z. Nutritional and Therapeutic Properties of Pomegranate. Scho J Food Nutr. 2018;1(4):1-6.
43. Kumar Y. Beetroot: A Super Food. Int J Engin Studies Tech App. 2015;1(3):20-6.
44. Hemdan DI, Abdulmaguid NY. Study the effect of star anise extract and the pulp of kiwifruit on mice infected with cancer. Curr Sci. 2020;118(1):87-93.
45. Amr R, Aml FE. Hepatoprotective Effects of Pomegranate and Apple Juices against N-nitrosodiethylamine - Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Rats. J Studies Search Spec Edu. 2016;2:235-51.
46. Prasetyastuti A, Adhi TL, Ricky T, Tantra DR, Gandhi AF, Yan MF, et al. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Juice Improves Liver Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rats. Asian J Biochem. 2017;12(3):79-84.
47. Afrah FS, Mohamed LS, Wafaa MI, Yara AH. Nicotinic Acid Inducing G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells in Vivo. Alex J Vet Sci. 2017;53(1):79-87.
48. Arpita B, Kavitha P. Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice. Nutr Rev. 2009;67(1):49-56.
49. Eleonora T, Lorenzo F, Carmela F. Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:938475.
50. Gandia-Herrero F, Escribano J, Garcia-Carmona F. Biological Activities of Plant Pigments Betalains. Food Sci Nutr. 2016;56(6):937-45.