Archive \ Volume.14 2023 Issue 4

Cupcakes Preparation from Resistant Starch as Alternative Fat for Children and Treating Obesity in Mice

  1. Department of Family Education, Faculty of Education, Umm Al-Qura, Makka Al-Mukarama, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


This study examined resistant starch at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% as an alternative fat with 10% chickpeas added separately to make cupcakes. Nutritional analysis of raw ingredients, sensory assessment, texture profile analysis (TPA), physical qualities of cupcakes and mouse obesity treatment with cupcake formulae examined. Chickpeas exhibited a greatest chemical composition and total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations at 28.75, 7.34, 5.74, and 7.32%. On dry weight, 265.35 mg/100 GAE and 104.46 mg/100g QE. Resistance starch had highest dry weight in insoluble and soluble dietary fiber at 38.79, 25.89, and 12.90%. As resistant starch grew, cupcake texture profile analysis increased. Acid, thiobarbituric, and peroxide acid values changed by how long resistant starch was stored and the amount used as a fat substitute. A biochemical investigation indicated that obese mice with 50% shortening substituted for fat had lower blood lipid profiles and estimated atherogenic indexes than controls but higher HDL cholesterol. Liver functions showed that groups fed on 10 to 50% resistant starch as a fat replacer in the obese rats' group decreased gradually from 35.14 to 25.37 mg/dl in ALP, from 15.66 to 7.94 mg/dl in AST and from 61.25 to 32.75 mg/dl in ALK. Up to 50% resistant starch as an alternative shortening in cupcake recipes was proven by antioxidant enzymes including GSH, SOD, CAT and MDA from obese rats. Resistance starch as a replacement fat until 50% alternative shortening and 10% chickpeas, which have high antioxidants as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat obesity-related disorders.

Downloads: 30
Views: 36

How to cite:
Al-lbban AM. Cupcakes Preparation from Resistant Starch as Alternative Fat for Children and Treating Obesity in Mice. Arch Pharm Pract. 2023;14(4):114-22.
Al-lbban, A. M. (2023). Cupcakes Preparation from Resistant Starch as Alternative Fat for Children and Treating Obesity in Mice. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 14(4), 114-122.

Download Citation
  1. Galea-Holhoș LB, Delcea C, Siserman CV, Ciocan V. Age estimation of human remains using the dental system: A review. Ann Dent Spec. 2023;11(3):15.
  2. Vartolomei L, Cotruș A, Stanciu C, Delcea C, Tozzi M, Lievore E, et al. Quality of life and psychological distress among patients with small renal masses. J Clin Med. 2022;11(14):3944.
  3. Müller-Fabian A, Siserman C, Anițan ȘM, Delcea C. Juvenile delinquency in light of data recorded at the Institute of Forensic Medicine. Rom J Leg Med. 2018;26(1):70-5.
  4. Aljehany BM, Allily RK. Impact of Covid-19 Quarantine on Life Style Changes, In the Western Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Organ Behav Res. 2022;7(1):182-97.
  5. Estruch R, Vendrell E, Ruiz-León AM, Casas R, Castro-Barquero S, Alvarez X. Reformulation of Pastry Products to Improve Effects on Health. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1709. doi:10.3390/nu12061709
  6. Elmeged LSMA, Alzahrani MSH. Effect of Biologically Active Substances in Cichorium on Biochemical Changes in Obese Rats. J Biochem Technol. 2022;13(3):38-45.
  7. Dorontsev AV, Vorobyeva NV, Kumantsova ES, Shulgin AM, Sharagin VI, Eremin MV. Functional Changes in the Body of Young Men Who Started Regular Physical Activity. J Biochem Technol. 2022;13(1):65-71.
  8. Vall Ribeiro NCB, Ramer-Tait AE, Cazarin CBB. Resistant starch: A promising ingredient and health promoter. Pharma Nutr. 2022;21:100304. doi:10.1016/j.phanu.2022.100304
  9. Makurina ON, Mal GS, Dorontsev AV, Komarov MN, Romanova AV, Eremin MV, et al. Possibilities of Handball Practice in Strengthening Heart Function in University Students. J Biochem Technol. 2022;13(1):29-33.
  10. Samir D, Ouissam B, Anfal D. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Biosynthesis Zinc Nanoparticles by Using Polyherbal Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats. J Biochem Technol. 2022;13(1):72-80.
  11. Ghribi, AM, Sila A, Przybylski R. Purification and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysate of chickpea (Cicer arietunum L.) protein concentrate. J Funct Foods. 2015;12:512-25.
  12. Faridy JM, Stephanie CM, Gabriela MO, Cristian JM. Biological Activities of Chickpea in Human Health (Cicer arietinum L.). A Review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2020;75(2):142-53. doi:10.1007/s11130-020-00814-2
  13. Raza H, Zaaboul F, Shoaib M, Zhang L. An overview of physicochemical composition and methods used for chickpeas processing. Int J Agric Innovs Res. 2019;7(5):495-500.
  14. AOAC Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Official Chemists. 18th Ed., Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
  15. Po-Ying H, Gzuchajawska H, Pomeranz Y. Enzyme-resistant starch in yellow layer cake. Cereal Chem. 1994;7(1):69-75.
  16. Saxena AK, Chadha M, Sharma S. Nutrients and antinutrients in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars after soaking and pressure cooking. J Food Sci Technol. 2003;40(5):493-7.
  17. Lebesi DM, Tzia C. Effect of the addition of different dietary fiber and edible cereal bran sources on the baking and sensory characteristics of cupcakes. Food Bioproc Technol. 2011;4(5):710-22.
  18. Prosky L, Asp NG, Schweizer TF, Devries JW, Furda I. Determination of insoluble and soluble and total dietary fiber in food product: Inter Laboratory Study. J Assoc Anal Chem. 1988;71(5):1017-23.
  19. Lee SC, Prosky L. International surrevy on dietary fiber definition, analysis and materials. JAOAC. 1995;78(1):22-36.
  20. Qawasmeh A, Obied H, Raman A, Wheatley W. Influence of fungal entophyte infection on phenolic content and antioxidant activity in grasses: Interaction between Loliumperenne and different strains of Neotyphodiumlolii. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60(13):3381-8. doi:10.1021/jf204105k
  21. Eghdami A, Sadeghi F. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents in methanolic and aqueous extract of Achilleamillefolium. J Org Chem. 2010;2:81-4.
  22. Rosa CS, Tessele K, Prestes RC, Silveira M, Franco F. Effect of substituting of cocoa powder for carob flour in cakes made with soy and banana flours. Int Food Res J. 2015;22(5):2111-8.
  23. Gomez M, Ronda F, Caballero P, Blanco C, Rosell C. Functionality of different hydrocolloids on the quality and shelf-life of yellow layer cakes. Food Hydrocoll. 2007;21(2):167-73.
  24. Egan H, Kirk RS, Sawyer R. Pearson̓ s Chemical Analysis of Food. 8th ed. Churchill Livingstone. Longman Group Limited UK, 981.
  25. Fossati P, Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined color- imetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem. 1982;28(10):2077-80.
  26. Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CSG, Richmond W, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of total Serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 1974;20(4):470-5.
  27. Lopez-Virelle MF, Stone P, Ellis S, Colvell JA. Cholesterol determination in high-density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clin Chem. 1977;23(5):882-4.
  28. Wardlaw GM, Snook JT. Effect of diets high in butter, corn oil, or high oleic acid sunflower oil on serum lipids and apolipoprotiens in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51(5):815-21.
  29. Reitman S, Frankel SA. Colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1957;28(1):56-63.
  30. Belfied A, Goldberg DM. Human serum glucose-6-phosphatase activity: confirmation of its presence and lack of diagnostic value. Enzyme. 1971;12(5):561-5.
  31. Yoshioka T, Kawada K, Shimada T, Mori M. Lipid peroxidation in maternal and cord blood and protective mechanism against activated-oxygen toxicity in the blood. Am J Obstet Gynecolol. 1979;135(3):372-6.
  32. Sairam K, Priyambada S, Aryya NC, Goel RK. Gastroduodenal ulcer protective activity of Asparagus racemosus: An experimental, biochemical and histological study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;86(1):1-6.
  33. Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jacoby WB. Glutathione S-transferases: the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:7130-9.
  34. Aebi ME. Catalase. In: Bergmeyer J, Grabl BM (eds) Methods of Enzymatic Analysis vol. III. Enzymes oxidoreductases, 3rded. Weinheim: Verlag-Chemie. 1995:273-86.
  35. SAS System for Windows (Statistical Analysis System). 2008. Version9.2. Cary, USA: SAS Institute.
  36. Wani SA, Kumar P. Comparative study of chickpea and green pea flour based on chemical composition, functional and pasting properties. J Food Res Technol. 2014;2(3):124-9.
  37. Lin J, Gu Y, Bian K. Bulk and surface chemical composition of wheat flour particles of different sizes. J Chem. 2019:5101684. doi:10.1155/2019/5101684
  38. Kurek M, Wyrwisz J. The application of dietary fiber in bread products. J. Food Process Technol. 2016;6(5):447.
  39. Magalhães SC, Taveira M, Cabrita AR, Fonseca AJ, Valentão A, Andrade PB. European marketable grain legume seeds: Further insight into phenolic compounds profiles. Food Chem. 2017;215:177-84.
  40. Shahidi F, Ambigaipalan P. Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidants activity and health effects—A review. J Funct Food. 2015;18:820-97.
  41. Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem. 2006;99(1):191-203.
  42. Colla K, Andrew O, Gamlath S. Fat Replacers in Baked Food Products. Foods. 2018;7(12):192. doi:10.3390/foods7120192
  43. Majzoobi M, Hedayati S, Habibi M, Ghiasi F, Farahnaky A. Effects of corn resistant starch on the physicochemical properties of cake. J Agr Sci Tech. 2014;16(3):569-76.
  44. Gao J, Brennan MA, Mason SL, Brennan CS. Effects of sugar substitution with “stevianna” on the sensory characteristics of muffins. J. Food Qual. 2017:1-11.
  45. Singh JP, Kaur A, Singh N. Development of eggless gluten-free rice muffins utilizing black carrot dietary fibre concentrate and xanthan gum. J Food Sci Technol. 2016;53:1269-78.
  46. Shevkani K, Singh N. Influence of kidney bean, field pea and amaranth protein isolates on the characteristics of starch-based gluten-free muffins. Int J Food Sci. 2014;49(10):2237-44.
  47. Zhu F, Sun J. Physicochemical and sensory properties of steamed bread fortified with purple sweet potato flour. Food Biosci. 2019;30(4):100411. doi:10.1016/J.FBIO.2019.04.012
  48. Andrade-Mahecha MM, Tapia-Blácido DR, Menegalli FC. Physical–chemical, thermal, and functional properties of achira (Canna indica L.) flour and starch from different geographical origin. Starch. 2012;64(5):348-58.
  49. Salazar D, Arancibia M, Silva DR, López-Caballero ME, Montero MP. Exploring the Potential of Andean Crops for the Production of Gluten-Free Muffins. Agronomy. 2021;11(8):1642. doi:10.3390/agronomy11081642
  50. Kozłowska M, Zbikowska A, Szpicer A, Poltorak A. Oxidative stability of lipid fractions of sponge-fat cakes after green tea extracts application. J Food Sci Technol. 2019;56(5):2628-38.
  51. Mahmoudi L, Tavakoilpour H, Nasiraie LR, Ashtari AK. Ultrasonication and encapsulation of butcher broom (Ruscus hyrcanus L.) extract and its bioactive effects on qualitative properties, oxidative stability and shelf life of cake. Sustainable Chem Pharm. 2020;17:1-9.
  52. Jyoshna E, Hymavathi TV. Study on resistant starch supplementation effect on total cholesterol: Review of literature. J Pharm Phytochem. 2017;6(1):50-1.
  53. Aggarwal D, Sabikhi L, Lamba H, Chaudhary N, Kapila R. Whole grains and resistant starch rich, reduced-calorie biscuit diet as a hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and insulin stimulator in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2017;52(1):118-26.
  54. Ghanbari E, Nejati V, Khazaei M. Improvement in Serum Biochemical Alterations and Oxidative Stress of Liver and Pancreas following Use of Royal Jelly in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Cell J. 2016;18(3):362-70.
  55. Julián MT, Alonso N, Ojanguren I, Pizarro E, Ballestar E, Puig-Domingo M. Hepatic glycogenosis: An underdiagnosed complication of diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(2):321-5.
  56. Zhu W, Zhou Y, Tsao R, Dong H, Zhang H. Amelioratory Effect of Resistant Starch on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease via the Gut-Liver Axis. Front Nutr. 2022;9:861854. doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.861854
  57. Chen X, Liu Z, Meng R, Shi C, Guo N. Antioxidative and anticancer properties of licochalcone A from licorice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;198:331-7.
  58. Afsar T, Razak S, Almajwal A, Khan MR. Acacia hydaspica R. Parker ameliorates cisplatin induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and morphological alterations in rat pulmonary tissue, BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18:49.







Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.