This retrospective study comprehensively analyses the epidemiological trends of Central Nervous System (CNS) cancers in Saudi Arabia over three decades, from 1990 to 2019. Utilizing data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and the Saudi Cancer Registry, the study examines incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates, offering a detailed depiction of CNS cancer trends in the region. The findings reveal a significant increase in the incidence of CNS cancers, with rates increasing from 1.1 to 3.63 per 100,000 population. Despite this rise, the incidence in Saudi Arabia remains lower than in more developed regions, suggesting regional variations in risk factors and healthcare practices. The study observes a marked decline in mortality rates, from 25% in 1990 to below 10% in 2019, indicative of the effect of advancements in early detection, molecular diagnostics, and therapeutic interventions. Gender disparities were apparent, with males exhibiting higher incidence and mortality rates, aligning with global epidemiological patterns. The study also highlights demographic variability in CNS cancer incidence, with a prominent increase in adult populations, particularly those aged 55 and above. These findings underscore the need for targeted public health strategies and healthcare policies to address the rising incidence and improve patient outcomes. The study advocates for future research focusing on the etiology of CNS cancers, particularly in genetic and environmental factors, and calls for international collaboration in research to understand global variations in CNS cancer trends.