Archive \ Volume.11 2020 Issue 3

Evaluation of the Recent Updates Regarding Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis: Literature Review

Lujain A.Faraj , Dhay S. Alrawithi , Sarah A. Alkhatabi , Sultan B. Alotaibi , Mohand E. A. Nooli , Raghad S. Alharthi , Abdulelah F. Almansour , Khaled H. AlGhamdi , Fahad S. S Alanazi , Faisal F. G. Alghanim , Arwa S. M. AlDahmashi

Background: Bronchiolitis is an infectious disease that is prevalent among the pediatric age group. It is induced by a viral agent and results in an inflammation of small bronchioles and their surrounding tissue. Objectives: Bronchiolitis poses a huge burden on the practice of many pediatricians and thorough knowledge of its etiology, risk factors, presentation, and management are essential. Therefore, in this paper, we reviewed the literature discussing the etiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of bronchiolitis. Methodology: PubMed database was used for articles selection, and the following keys were used in the search: bronchiolitis, etiology, risk factors, presentation, and management. Result: The disease is self-limiting where only 1-3% of patients require hospital admission. Bronchiolitis is most commonly caused by syncytial virus and rhinovirus. The diagnosis is mainly clinical while X-ray is sometimes needed to rule out bacterial pneumonia. Hygienic measures play an essential role in reducing the spread of bronchiolitis. The mainstay of bronchiolitis management relays heavily on symptomatic relief.  Conclusion: Although bronchiolitis remains a common disease among children, it is essential for clinicians to know how to promptly identify the severe course and understand the gravity it carries.

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