Archive \ Volume.10 2019 Issue 3

Gastroenteritis Diagnosis and Management in Children: A simple Literature Review

Amgad I. Gholam , Eman A Alosaimi , Maha D. Aldhafeeri , Ammar S. Alahmari , Abeer S Alharbi , Ridha H A Bohassan , Ibrahim A Homadi , Abdulaziz Y Abumismar , Mishal A H Alanzy , Mubarak M Aldosari , Fahad M. Albaiji

Gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract and is of particular importance in infants, children, and adolescents. The morbidity and mortality associated with dehydration can be fatal despite the recent advances in care and management. This disease can be the result of many pathogens, with rotavirus being the leading cause, followed by the bacterial causes of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Objective: In this study, we aimed to review the literature on the diagnosis and management of gastroenteritis in children to provide a summarized, yet comprehensive review paper. Method: PubMed database was used to select articles, and the following keys were used in the MeSH ((“Gastroenteritis"[MeSH]) AND (“Evaluation"[MeSH] OR "Management"[MeSH] OR “Diagnosis"[MeSH])). Conclusion: Proper clinical assessment to rule out other causes of noninfectious gastroenteritis is the leading key management. The untreated conditions may deteriorate so quickly and patients become severely dehydrated resulting in endemic infection and serious deterioration of community health. The identification of high-risk groups including immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, and non-responsive patients by the physician is crucial as they have a higher rate of deterioration. Oral rehydration therapy is considered the first line in the treatment algorithm and should be combined with nutrient and zinc supplementation. Other options of therapy include IV hydration, antibiotics, and hospitalization in severe cases.