The existence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the rectovaginal area during pregnancy and labor is linked to disease and even death in neonates. However, the extent of GBS colonization in pregnant women in Saudi Arabia has not been fully established. The goal of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant women in Saudi Arabia, where GBS screening is not routinely conducted. This retrospective study involved 1201 Saudi women at ≥28 weeks of gestation admitted in labor to King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Vaginal and rectal swabs were taken from these patients between January 2019 and December 2020. Neonatal outcomes were also documented. Out of the 1201 women participating in this study, 534 (44.5%) tested positive for GBS in either the vaginal or rectal sample or both. GBS was also identified as the most common microorganism present in the subjects’ cultures. Eleven instances of neonatal sepsis were recorded, three of which were early‑onset cases induced by GBS. There were no demographic distinctions between patients who were GBS-positive and those who were GBS-negative. Similarly, no differences in GBS status were found between women with preterm birth and ruptured membranes and those without. The presence of bacterial colonization in women during labor is one of the most problematic and common in the Western province of Saudi Arabia. This study observed an elevated rate of GBS colonization in Saudi women admitted to KAUH while in labor.
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