Archive \ Volume.13 2022 Issue 4

Group B Streptococcal Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Maternal Colonization and Neonatal Infection

Safa Yousef Almaghrabi
Abstract

The existence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the rectovaginal area during pregnancy and labor is linked to disease and even death in neonates. However, the extent of GBS colonization in pregnant women in Saudi Arabia has not been fully established. The goal of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant women in Saudi Arabia, where GBS screening is not routinely conducted. This retrospective study involved 1201 Saudi women at ≥28 weeks of gestation admitted in labor to King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Vaginal and rectal swabs were taken from these patients between January 2019 and December 2020. Neonatal outcomes were also documented. Out of the 1201 women participating in this study, 534 (44.5%) tested positive for GBS in either the vaginal or rectal sample or both. GBS was also identified as the most common microorganism present in the subjects’ cultures. Eleven instances of neonatal sepsis were recorded, three of which were early‑onset cases induced by GBS. There were no demographic distinctions between patients who were GBS-positive and those who were GBS-negative. Similarly, no differences in GBS status were found between women with preterm birth and ruptured membranes and those without. The presence of bacterial colonization in women during labor is one of the most problematic and common in the Western province of Saudi Arabia. This study observed an elevated rate of GBS colonization in Saudi women admitted to KAUH while in labor.



How to cite:
Vancouver
Almaghrabi SY. Group B Streptococcal Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Maternal Colonization and Neonatal Infection. Arch Pharm Pract. 2022;13(4):52-6. https://doi.org/10.51847/eAREogQFsd
APA
Almaghrabi, S. Y. (2022). Group B Streptococcal Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Maternal Colonization and Neonatal Infection. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 13(4), 52-56. https://doi.org/10.51847/eAREogQFsd

Download Citation
References

1.        Morgan JA, Zafar N, Cooper DB. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy. In: Stat Pearls. Treasure Island (FL): Stat Pearls. 2021.

2.        Verani JR, McGee L, Schrag SJ. Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease – Revised guidelines from CDC, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59:1‑36.

3.        Schrag SJ, Verani JR. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: experience in the United States and implications for a potential group B streptococcal vaccine. Vaccine. 2013;31:20-6.

4.        Russell NJ, Seale AC, O’Driscoll M, O’Sullivan C, Bianchi-Jassir F, Gonzalez-Guarin J, et al. Maternal colonization with group B Streptococcus and serotype distribution worldwide: systematic review and meta-analyses. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(suppl_2):100-11.

5.        Hadavand S, Ghafoorimehr F, Rajabi L, Davati A, Zafarghandi N. Frequency of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in Pregnant Women Aged 35- 37 Weeks in Clinical Centers of Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Iran J Pathol. 2015;10(2):120-6.

6.        AlZuheiri ST, Dube R, Menezes G, Qasem S. Clinical profile and outcome of group B streptococcal colonization in mothers and neonates in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates: A prospective observational study. Saudi J Med Med Sci. 2021;9(3):235.

7.        Clouse K, Shehabi A, Suleimat AM, Faouri S, Khuri-Bulos N, Al Jammal A, et al. High prevalence of Group B Streptococcus colonization among pregnant women in Amman, Jordan. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):177.

8.        Mohamed AM, Khan MA, Faiz A, Ahmad J, Khidir EB, Basalamah MA, et al. Group B Streptococcus colonization, antibiotic susceptibility, and serotype distribution among Saudi pregnant women. Infect Chemother. 2020;52(1):70-81.

9.        Musleh J, Al Qahtani N. Group B Streptococcus Colonization among Saudi Women During Labor. Saudi J Med Sci. 2018;6(1):18-22.

10.      Arain FR, Al-Bezrah NA, Al-Aali KY. Prevalence of maternal genital tract colonization by group B streptococcus from Western Province, Taif, Saudi Arabia. J Clin Gynecol Obstet. 2015;4(3):258-64.

11.      El‑Kersh TA, Al‑Nuaim LA, Kharfy TA, Al-Shammary FJ, Al-Saleh SS, Al-Zamel FA. Detection of genital colonization of group B streptococci during late pregnancy. Saudi Med J. 2002;23(1):56‑61.

12.      Zamzami TY, Marzouki AM, Nasrat HA. Prevalence rate of group B streptoccocal colonization among women in labor at King Abdul‑Aziz University Hospital. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;284(3):677‑9.

13.      Alshengeti A, Alharbi A, Alraddadi S, Alawfi A, Aljohani B. Knowledge, attitude and current practices of pregnant women towards group B streptococcus screening: cross-sectional study, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. BMJ Open. 2020;10(2):e032487.

14.      Hussein KS. Maternal Serum C-Reactive Protein and Mean Platelet Volume as Predictors of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes. Int J Pharm Res Allied Sci. 2021;10(1):109-17.

15.      Shabayek S, Spellerberg B. Group B Streptococcal Colonization, Molecular Characteristics, and Epidemiology. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:437.

16.      Medugu N, Iregbu KC, Parker RE, Plemmons J, Singh P, Audu LI, et al. Group B streptococcal colonization and transmission dynamics in pregnant women and their newborns in Nigeria: implications for prevention strategies. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017;23(9):673-9.

17.      Kwatra G, Cunnington MC, Merrall E, Adrian PV, Ip M, Klugman KP, et al. Prevalence of maternal colonisation with Group B streptococcus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(9):1076-84.

18.      Amabebe E, Anumba DOC. The Vaginal Microenvironment: The Physiologic Role of Lactobacilli. Front Med (Lausanne). 2018;5:181.

19.      Asindi AA, Archibong EI, Mannan NB. Mother-infant colonization and neonatal sepsis in prelabor rupture of membranes. Saudi Med J. 2002;23(10):1270-4.

20.      Lajos GJ, Passini Junior R, Nomura ML, Amaral E, Pereira BG, Milanez H, et al. Cervical bacterial colonization in women with preterm labor or premature rupture of membranes. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2008;30:393-9.

21.      Valkenburg-van den Berg AW, Sprij AJ, Oostvogel PM, Mutsaers JA, Renes WB, Rosendaal FR, et al. Prevalence of colonization with group B Streptococci in pregnant women of a multi-ethnic population in The Netherlands. Europ J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;124(2):78-183.

22.      Joachim A, Matee MI, Massawe FA, Lyamuya EF. Maternal and neonatal colonization of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance. BMC Public Health. 2009;9(1):437-43.

23.      Eren A, Kuçukercan M, Oguzoglu N, Unal N, Karateken A. The carriage of group B streptococci in Turkish pregnant women and its transmission rate in newborns and serotype distribution. Turk J Pediatr. 2005;47(1):28-33.

24.      Mansouri S, Ghasami E, Najad NS. Vaginal colonization of group B streptococci during late pregnancy in Southern Iran: incidence, serotype distribution and susceptibility to antibiotics. J Med Sci. 2008;8(6):574-8.

25.      Valkenburg‑van den Berg AW, Houtman‑Roelofsen RL, Oostvogel PM, Dekker FW, Dörr PJ, Sprij AJ, et al. Timing of group B streptococcus screening in pregnancy: A systematic review. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;69(3):174‑83.

26.      Akhlaghi F, Hamedi A, Nassab MN. Comparison of group B streptococcal colonization in the pregnant diabetic and non‑diabetic women. Acta Med Iran. 2009;47:103‑8.

27.      Al-Mazroea AH. Neonatal sepsis in preterm neonates, Almadina Almunawara, Saudi Arabia, Background, Etiology. Pharmacophore. 2017;8(1):6-10.