Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death in Saudi Arabia; next to road traffic accidents. Both resistance and aerobic exercises provide the greatest benefits as the best exercise modality for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors among the adult population attending the Fitness center/Gymnasium in Arar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In a randomized cross-sectional prospective study, unselected adult population attending a Fitness center/Gymnasium in Arar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was screened for Obesity, Diabetes mellitus, and hypertension and its risk factors. The outcomes of this study were analyzed using the SPSS program using a pre-tested questionnaire. The study included 213 participants more than half of them 57.7% 20-30 years old, 63.8% females, and 36.2% males. 72.3% of participants joined the club for general health and fitness, 33.8% to lose weight, and 22.1% to spend spare time. Only 10.8% had been diagnosed with high blood pressure. 89.2% correctly answered that practicing physical activity can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. 84% said that walking can prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease and 68.5% said that usual physical activity for 150 minutes a week will reduce your chance of having a heart attack or stroke. Participants showed good awareness of cardiovascular disease risk factors among participants which was in the same line with other reported studies. Also, they know the role of physical activity in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease risk.
1. Guo L, Zhang S. Association between ideal cardiovascular health metrics and risk of cardiovascular events or mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clin Cardiol. 2017;40(12):1339-46.
2. Gaye B, Canonico M, Perier MC, Samieri C, Berr C, Dartigues JF, et al. Ideal Cardiovascular Health, Mortality, and Vascular Events in Elderly Subjects: The Three-City Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(25):3015-26.
3. Enserro DM, Vasan RS, Xanthakis V. Twenty-Year Trends in the American Heart Association Cardiovascular Health Score and Impact on Subclinical and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: The Framingham Offspring Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(11):e008741.
4. Yeboah J. Road to the American Heart Association 2020 Impact Goals: The Metric for Monitoring Progress. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2018;11(1):e007385.
5. Kivimäki M, Batty GD, Hamer M, Ferrie JE, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, et al. Using additional information on working hours to predict coronary heart disease: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(7):457-63.
6. Kivimäki M, Batty GD, Singh-Manoux A, Britton A, Brunner EJ, Shipley MJ. Validity of cardiovascular disease event ascertainment using linkage to UK hospital records. Epidemiology. 2017;28(5):735-9.
7. Britton A, Milne B, Butler T, Sanchez-Galvez A, Shipley M, Rudd A, et al. Validating self-reported strokes in a longitudinal UK cohort study (Whitehall II): Extracting information from hospital medical records versus the Hospital Episode Statistics database. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012;12:83.
8. Gaye B, Prugger C, Perier MC, Thomas F, Plichart M, Guibout C, et al. High level of depressive symptoms as a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health. The Paris Prospective Study III. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18951.
9. Kronish IM, Carson AP, Davidson KW, Muntner P, Safford MM. Depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health by the American Heart Association's definition in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52771.
10. Huffman MD, Capewell S, Ning H, Shay CM, Ford ES, Lloyd-Jones DM. Cardiovascular health behavior and health factor changes (1988-2008) and projections to 2020: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Circulation. 2012;125(21):2595-602.
11. Shah AM, Claggett B, Folsom AR, Lutsey PL, Ballantyne CM, Heiss G, et al. Ideal Cardiovascular Health During Adult Life and Cardiovascular Structure and Function Among the Elderly. Circulation. 2015;132(21):1979-89.
12. Aatola H, Hutri-Kähönen N, Juonala M, Laitinen TT, Pahkala K, Mikkilä V, et al. Prospective relationship of change in ideal cardiovascular health status and arterial stiffness: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(2):e000532.
13. Hwang SJ, Onuma O, Massaro JM, Zhang X, Fu YP, Hoffmann U, et al. Maintenance of Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Low-Risk Men and Women in the Framingham Heart Study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2018;11(1):e006209.
14. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden WB, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;127(1):e6-245.
15. Barth J, Schneider S, von Kanel R. Lack of social support in the etiology and the prognosis of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychosom Med. 2010;72(3):229-38.
16. Dale J, Williams S, Bowyer V. What is the effect of peer support on diabetes outcomes in adults? A systematic review. Diabet Med. 2012;29(11):1361-77.
17. Mendis S, Puska P, Norrving B, World Health Organization. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. World Health Organization; 2011. Available from: http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/publications/atlas_cvd/en/
18. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Blaha MJ, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;129(3):e28-e292. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000441139.02102.80
19. WHO. Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD) Country profiles, 2018. WHO. Geneva. 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/nmh/countries/sau_en.pdf
20. Potvin L, Richard L, Edwards AC. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk factors among the Canadian population: relationships with indicators of socioeconomic status. CMAJ. 2000;162(9 Suppl):S5-11.
21. Nasreddine L, Naja FA, Sibai AM, Helou K, Adra N, Hwalla N. Trends in nutritional intakes and nutrition-related cardiovascular disease risk factors in Lebanon: the need for immediate action. J Med Liban. 2014;62(2):83-91.
22. Nasreddine L, Naja F, Chamieh MC, Adra N, Sibai AM, Hwalla N. Trends in overweight and obesity in Lebanon: evidence from two national cross-sectional surveys (1997 and 2009). BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):120-9.
23. Naja F, Hwalla N, Itani L, Salem M, Azar ST, Zeidan MN, et al. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case-control study. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9(1):111. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-111
24. World Health Organization. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. World Health Organization; 2009.
25. Whitworth JA; World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group. 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21(11):1983-92.
26. Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR, Gobin R, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, et al. Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet. 2010;375(9733):2215-22.
27. Nelson RH. Hyperlipidemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Prim Care. 2013;40(1):195-211.
28. Mohamed HS. Knowledge of Coronary Heart Disease and Risk Factors Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Outpatient Department of Kasr Alainy Hospital. Egypt J Hosp Med. 2021;82(4):785-91.
29. George C. A population-based study on Awareness of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. Indian J Pharm Pract. 2014;7(2):23-5. doi:10.5530/ijopp.7.2.5
30. Budhathoki R, Thulung B. Awareness regarding Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Adults attending at a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur. IOSR J Nurs Health Sci. 2021;10(4):1-8.
31. Aminde LN, Takah N, Ngwasiri C, Noubiap JJ, Tindong M, Dzudie A, et al. Population awareness of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Buea, Cameroon. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):545. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4477-3
32. Booth FW, Roberts CK, Thyfault JP, Ruegsegger GN, Toedebusch RG. Role of Inactivity in Chronic Diseases: Evolutionary Insight and Pathophysiological Mechanisms. Physiol Rev. 2017;97(4):1351-402. doi:10.1152/physrev.00019.2016
33. Sandbakk SB, Nauman J, Zisko N, Sandbakk Ø, Aspvik NP, Stensvold D, et al. Sedentary Time, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Older Adults--the Generation 100 Study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91(11):1525-34. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.07.020
34. Hansen D, Niebauer J, Cornelissen V, Barna O, Neunhäuserer D, Stettler C, et al. Exercise Prescription in Patients with Different Combinations of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Consensus Statement from the EXPERT Working Group. Sports Med. 2018;48(8):1781-97. doi:10.1007/s40279-018-0930-4
35. Negi CK, Babica P, Bajard L, Bienertova-Vasku J, Tarantino G. Insights into the molecular targets and emerging pharmacotherapeutic interventions for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism. 2022;126:154925. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154925
36. Fahs I, Khalife Z, Malaeb D, Iskandarani M, Salameh P. The Prevalence and Awareness of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors among the Lebanese Population: A Prospective Study Comparing Urban to Rural Populations. Cardiol Res Pract. 2017;2017:3530902. doi:10.1155/2017/3530902
Copyright © 2023 - All Rights Reserved - Archives of Pharmacy Practice
Developed by Archives of Pharmacy Practice