Archive \ Volume.13 2022 Issue 4

Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review

Abdulkarim Muhanna Alanazi, Nuof Salamh Nael Alenazi, Haifa Suaylm Khalaf Alanazi, Shaima Abdullah Farhan Almadhari, Hala Amjad Mohammed Almadani
Abstract

Children frequently experience status epilepticus (SE), a neurologic emergency. Based on current findings in the medical literature, this systematic review aimed to review the published literature of the updates in epidemiology of Status epilepticus in pediatric patients in Saudi Arabia. Because they are reliable sources, PubMed and EBSCO Information Services will be used as the search databases for the publications used in the study. Status epilepticus (SE), seizures, mental health issues, and GABA receptor were among the topics that should have been covered in the project, so those papers were chosen based on their applicability. A total of 105 studies were found after searching the aforementioned databases, which were then used for title screening. 32 of them were excluded after 63 of them were included for abstract screening. The full texts of the remaining 31 publications were examined. Seven studies were enrolled for final data extraction, which includes 23 papers that were excluded as a result of the full-text revision. SE is a complex neurological condition that is primarily seen in children and older individuals, two separate age groups. As the second most prevalent neurological disorder to result in death, it has a high mortality and morbidity rate. Concerning the cause of SE an electrolyte imbalance and febrile seizures were the two most frequent causes of convulsive status epilepticus, respectively. The diagnosis is based mainly on ECG, where children who have SE show abnormalities in their imaging. Management of the condition mainly using antiseizure medications such as Midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam with almost similar efficacy.



How to cite:
Vancouver
Alanazi AM, Alenazi NSN, Alanazi HSK, Almadhari SAF, Almadani HAM. Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review. Arch Pharm Pract. 2022;13(4):45-51. https://doi.org/10.51847/tOl3Efkk8d
APA
Alanazi, A. M., Alenazi, N. S. N., Alanazi, H. S. K., Almadhari, S. A. F., & Almadani, H. A. M. (2022). Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 13(4), 45-51. https://doi.org/10.51847/tOl3Efkk8d

Download Citation
References

1.        Horváth L, Fekete I, Molnár M, Válóczy R, Márton S, Fekete K. The Outcome of Status Epilepticus and Long-Term Follow-Up. Front Neurol. 2019;10:427. doi:10.3389/fneur.2019.00427

2.        Peng P, Peng J, Yin F, Deng X, Chen C, He F, et al. Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment for Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus in Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome. Front Neurol. 2019;10:423. doi:10.3389/fneur.2019.00423

3.        González NH, González AB, Requejo VH, Díaz JD. Focal status epilepticus: a review of pharmacological treatment. Neurologia (Engl Ed). 2019. English, Spanish. doi:10.1016/j.nrl.2019.02.003

4.        Seinfeld S, Goodkin HP, Shinnar S. Status epilepticus. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2016;6(3):a022830.

5.        Malekzadeh A, Zare A, Yaghoobi M, Kobravi HR, Alizadehsani R. Epileptic Seizures Detection in EEG Signals Using Fusion Handcrafted and Deep Learning Features. Sensors (Basel). 2021;21(22):7710. doi:10.3390/s21227710

6.        Arunkumar N, Ramkumar K, Venkatraman V, Abdulhay E, Fernandes SL, Kadry S, et al. Classification of focal and non focal EEG using entropies. Pattern Recognit Lett. 2017;94:112-7.

7.        Aaberg KM, Gunnes N, Bakken IJ, Lund Søraas C, Berntsen A, Magnus P, et al. Incidence and prevalence of childhood epilepsy: a nationwide cohort study. Pediatrics. 2017;139(5):e20163908.

8.        Tayeb HO. Epilepsy stigma in Saudi Arabia: the roles of mind–body dualism, supernatural beliefs, and religiosity. Epilepsy Behav. 2019;95:175-80.

9.        Farrukh MJ, Makmor-Bakry M, Hatah E, Tan HJ. Use of complementary and alternative medicine and adherence to antiepileptic drug therapy among epilepsy patients: a systematic review. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2018;12:2111.

10.      Horaib W, Alshamsi R, Zabeeri N, Al-Baradie RS, Abdel Wahab MM. Quality of Life and the Perceived Impact of Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cureus. 2021;13(12):e20305. doi:10.7759/cureus.20305

11.      Alsharif MM, El-Fetoh NM, Ali GY, Alanazi KF, Alanazi AN, FalahAlanazi O, et al. Epilepsy as a health problem among school children in Turaif, Northern Saudi Arabia, 2017. Electron Physician. 2017;9(8):5036-42. doi:10.19082/5036

12.      Dubey D, Kalita J, Misra UK. Status epilepticus: Refractory and super-refractory. Neurol India. 2017;65(7):12-7.

13.      Glauser T, Shinnar S, Gloss D, Alldredge B, Arya R, Bainbridge J, et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children and adults: report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society. Epilepsy Curr. 2016;16(1):48-61.

14.      Dika H, Nkola R, Iddi S, Magwiza C, Kongola G. Limited care offered to people with epilepsy in Mwanza, Tanzania: need for intervention. Pan Afr Med J. 2021;38:407. doi:10.11604/pamj.2021.38.407.28321

15.      Zavala-Tecuapetla C, Cuellar-Herrera M, Luna-Munguia H. Insights into Potential Targets for Therapeutic Intervention in Epilepsy. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(22):8573. doi:10.3390/ijms21228573

16.      Singh SP, Agarwal S, Faulkner M. Refractory status epilepticus. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2014;17(Suppl 1):S32-6.

17.      Hommady RH, Alrifai MT, Mubayrik OK, Alayed RS, Alsemari MA, Arumayyan A, et al. Retrospective review of pediatric status epilepticus in 116 Saudi patients: predictors of outcome. Ann Saudi Med. 2017;37(6):455-60. doi:10.5144/0256-4947.2017.455

18.      Abend NS, Arndt DH, Carpenter JL, Chapman KE, Cornett KM, Gallentine WB, et al. Electrographic seizures in pediatric ICU patients: cohort study of risk factors and mortality. Neurology. 2013;81(4):383-91.

19.      Dubey D, Kalita J, Misra UK. Status epilepticus: Refractory and super-refractory. Neurol India. 2017;65(Supplement):S12-7.

20.      Pujar S, Scott RC. Long-term outcomes after childhood convulsive status epilepticus. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2019;31(6):763-8. doi:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000825

21.      Chin RFM. The outcomes of childhood convulsive status epilepticus. Epilepsy Behav. 2019;101(Pt B):106286. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.04.039

22.      Kloc ML, Marchand DH, Holmes GL, Pressman RD, Barry JM. Cognitive impairment following experimental febrile seizures is determined by sex and seizure duration. Epilepsy Behav. 2022;126:108430. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108430

23.      Martinos MM, Pujar S, O'Reilly H, de Haan M, Neville BGR, Scott RC, et al. Intelligence and memory outcomes within 10 years of childhood convulsive status epilepticus. Epilepsy Behav. 2019;95:18-25. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.03.039

24.      Minardi C, Sahillioglu E, Astuto M, Colombo M, Mauricio Ingelmo P. Sedation and analgesia in pediatric intensive care. Curr Drug Targets. 2012;13(7):936-43. doi:10.2174/138945012800675740.

25.      Mah JK, Mah MW. Pediatric status epilepticus: a perspective from Saudi Arabia. Pediatr Neurol. 1999;20(5):364-9. doi:10.1016/s0887-8994(99)00012-0

26.      Alyoubi RA, Aljaafari DT, Basheikh MA, Al-Yahyawi NY, Bakry MA, BenHli NM, et al. The etiology and risk factors of convulsive status epilepticus in pediatric patients of tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Neurosci J. 2021;26(1):26-30. doi:10.17712/nsj.2021.1.20200116

27.      Alotaibi BS, Alodhayani AA, Alwan A, Alotaibi KN, Melaiki BT, Almadhi AM, et al. Detrimental effect of antiepileptic drugs dose in pediatric children with epilepsy in Saudi Arabia: A prospective cohort study. Medicine. 2021;100(26):e26478. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000026478

28.      Hommady RH, Alrifai MT, Mubayrik OK, Alayed RS, Alsemari MA, Arumayyan A, et al. Retrospective review of pediatric status epilepticus in 116 Saudi patients: predictors of outcome. Ann Saudi Med. 2017;37(6):455-60. doi:10.5144/0256-4947.2017.455

29.      Jafarpour S, Stredny CM, Piantino J, Chapman KE. Baseline and outcome assessment in pediatric status epilepticus. Seizure. 2019;68:52-61. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2018.04.019

30.      Horaib W, Alshamsi R, Zabeeri N, Al-Baradie RS, Wahab MM. Quality of Life and the Perceived Impact of Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cureus. 2021;13(12):e20305. doi:10.7759/cureus.20305

31.      Bahkali MA, Choudry AJ. Effects of Epilepsy on Children Living in Riyadh, 2012. Epidemiology (Sunnyvale). 2019;9(1):371. doi:10.4172/2161-1165.1000371

32.      Sánchez S, Rincon F. Status epilepticus: epidemiology and public health needs. J Clin Med. 2016;5(8):71.

33.      Pujar SS, Neville BG, Scott RC, Chin RF. Death within 8 years after childhood convulsive status epilepticus: a population-based study. Brain. 2011;134(10):2819-27.

34.      Novorol CL, Chin RF, Scott RC. Outcome of convulsive status epilepticus: a review. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92(11):948-51.

35.      Lewis DV, Shinnar S, Hesdorffer DC, Bagiella E, Bello JA, Chan S, et al. Hippocampal sclerosis after febrile status epilepticus: the FEBSTAT study. Ann Neurol. 2014;75(2):178-85.

36.      Kroczka S, Skowronek-Bała B, Zajac A. Causes of symptomatic epilepsy in two first years of life children hospitalized in 2006–2007 years. Przegląd Lek. 2008;65(11):745-50.

37.      Warsy AS, Al-Jaser MH, Albdass A, Al-Daihan S, Alanazi M. Is consanguinity prevalence decreasing in Saudis?: A study in two generations. Afr Health Sci. 2014;14(2):314-21. doi:10.4314/ahs.v14i2.5

38.      Babtain FA. Impact of a family history of epilepsy on the diagnosis of epilepsy in southern Saudi Arabia. Seizure. 2013;22(7):542-7.

39.      Silva B, Canas-Simião H, Cordeiro S, Velosa A, Oliveira-Maia AJ, Barahona-Corrêa JB. Determinants of quality of life in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2019;100(Pt A):106525. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106525

40.      Sills GJ, Rogawski MA. Mechanisms of action of currently used antiseizure drugs. Neuropharmacology. 2020;168:107966. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.107966

41.      Messahel S, Bracken L, Appleton R. Optimal Management of Status Epilepticus in Children in the Emergency Setting: A Review of Recent Advances. Open Access Emerg Med. 2022;14:491-506. doi:10.2147/OAEM.S293258

42.      Chamberlain JM, Kapur J, Shinnar S, Elm J, Holsti M, Babcock L, et al. Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials; Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network investigators. Efficacy of levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate for established status epilepticus by age group (ESETT): a double-blind, responsive-adaptive, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2020;395(10231):1217-24. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30611-5