Archive \ Volume.8 2017 Issue 2

Simulation-Based Instruction for Pharmacy Practice Skill Development: A Review of the Literature

Syed S. Hasan , David W. K. Chong , Wong P. Se , Suresh Kumar , Syed I. Ahmed , Piyush Mittal
Abstract

Background: Simulation is attractive for its potential for applying a control over learning environment, content complexity, teacher time, costs and risk. Simulation-based instruction (SBI) is poised to expand in pharmacy practice and education. This systematic review synthesises published, SBI in first-degree pharmacy programmes, especially those pertaining to psychomotor or cognitive skill development. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and some education journals were searched for relevant articles published between January 2000 and December 2015. Results: Of 108 articles identified, 12 were included, which were covering four major simulation-based interventions. These simulation-based interventions were diverse, and they covered a range of competencies and outcome measures. Nine studies included medication, and five studies included physical examination/procedure-related competencies as outcome measures. The evidence from nine studies suggested that skills could be improved through interventions involving human patient simulation. Conclusion: Despite improvements in students’ ability to perform, there is a lack of evidence on how this translates to real settings and to patient satisfaction.