Archive \ Volume.14 2023 Issue 4

Correlation between Serum Vitamin D Levels, COVID-19 Severity, and Inflammation in Diabetic Patients: A Retrospective Study

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  1. 1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

  2. 2Department of Laboratory, King Abdullah Medical City in Holy Capital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

  3. 3Department of Laboratory, Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Holy Capital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

  4. 4Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

  5. 5Department of environmental and occupational health, Faculty of public health and health informatics, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.


The recent COVID-19 pandemic has created significant health challenges, necessitating the enhancement of our immune systems. Through the modulation of immune response, Vitamin D vitally reduces the risk of infection and minimizes mortality rates. This retrospective study aimed to assess the relationship between the severity of COVID-19 infection in diabetes individuals and their blood vitamin D levels. A total of 2070 COVID-19 patients were split into two groups for this case-control retrospective study: non-diabetic (n=1723) and diabetic (n= 347). Electronic medical records from March to August 2020 obtained from the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center and Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia, were used as the base of the extraction of Demographic and clinical laboratory data. COVID-19 infection was confirmed in all patients through RT-PCR. Serum vitamin D level was measured by automated ELISA. A significant difference (p<0.05) in blood vitamin D levels between COVID-19 individuals with diabetes and those without was noted from the results of the study. We observed a marginal but significant negative correspondence between vitamin D levels and oxygen saturation as a measure of COVID-19 severity (p=0.016). Vitamin D levels were also found to be positively correlated with inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.038 and p<0.001,) while showing a negative correlation with D-dimer (p=0.017). The results of our investigation suggest that vitamin D supplementation may be helpful in the management and prevention of COVID-19 infection, as well as in reducing the severity of risk and inflammation among diabetic patients.

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Khan A, Mandili A, Al-Hadrami F, Babateen A, Ghaith M, Obaid A, et al. Correlation between Serum Vitamin D Levels, COVID-19 Severity, and Inflammation in Diabetic Patients: A Retrospective Study. Arch Pharm Pract. 2023;14(4):84-8.
Khan, A., Mandili, A., Al-Hadrami, F., Babateen, A., Ghaith, M., Obaid, A., Qasem, A., Khan, W., Bokhari, B., Atwah, B., et al. (2023). Correlation between Serum Vitamin D Levels, COVID-19 Severity, and Inflammation in Diabetic Patients: A Retrospective Study. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 14(4), 84-88.

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