Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy seen in the general population. It is one of the fundamental wellbeing fears in developing countries and is a serious metabolic disorder that causes considerable disease and mortality with micro- and macro-vascular complications. Long-lasting diabetes is poorly controlled and often leads to nephropathy and cardiovascular complications. To a greater extent, studies indicate that T2D.M is a protracted inflammatory disease associated with the immune system. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate immune changes by evaluating the CD31 marker. Subjects were divided into two groups: healthy people (control group) and diabetic patients of type 2 (diabetic group). Our results showed a significant increase in CD31in the diabetic group, in comparison with the control group. Also, WBC and lymphocyte count significantly increased in the diabetic group in comparison with the control group. To sum up, the evaluation of CD31 showed a noteworthy increment in HbA1c of diabetics compared to the control group.
1. Ahmed IA, Alosaimi ME, Alkhathami SM, Alkhurayb NT, Alrasheed MS, Alanazi ZM, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practices towards diabetes mellitus among non-diabetes community members of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int J Pharm Res Allied Sci. 2020;9(1):41-51.
2. Elshaer SS, Eldesoky NA, ELdosoky MA, Zahran FE, Eladawy EH. MiR-216a in Diabetic Nephropathy: Relation with Autophagy and Apoptosis. Int J Pharm Res Allied Sci. 2018;7(1):15-24.
3. Maniei M, Aghababaeian H, Karimi H, Firozzadeh K, Amirgholami N, Moghaddam AS, et al. The Use of Aloe Vera after Infrared Therapy in the Treatment of a Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Case Report. J Biochem Technol. 2019;10(2):43-9.
4. The Effect of Insulin Resistance on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Quality in PCOS Patients Undergoing ICSI. Int J Pharm Phytopharmacol Res. 2019;9(1):36-42.
5. Kishore M, Ma L, Cornish G, Nourshargh S, Marelli-Berg FM. Primed T cell responses to chemokines are regulated by the immunoglobulin-like molecule CD31. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39433.
6. Rothberg BEG, Bracken MB, Rimm DL. Immunohistochemical markers for cutaneous melanoma prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Progn Markers Cutan Malignant Melanoma. 2009;52.
7. Shapiro HM. Practical flow cytometry. John Wiley & Sons; 2005.
8. Molidor R. Design and development of a Bioinformatics platform for cancer immunogenomics. na; 2004.
9. Kuang B, Wen X, Ding Y, Peng R, Cai P, Zhang M, et al. The prognostic value of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Med Oncol. 2013;30(2):536.
10. Wilkinson R, Lyons AB, Roberts D, Wong M-X, Bartley PA, Jackson DE. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) acts as a regulator of B-cell development, B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)–mediated activation, and autoimmune disease. Blood J Am Soc Hematol. 2002;100(1):184-93.
11. Jia Y, Zhao Y, Li C, Shao R. The expression of programmed death-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe sepsis. Plos One. 2016;11(7):e0159383.
12. Witczak O, Haugen TB. Glycated or glycosylated? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2014;134(22):2179.
13. Santilli F, Marchisio M, Lanuti P, Boccatonda A, Miscia S, Davì G. Microparticles as new markers of cardiovascular risk in diabetes and beyond. Thromb Haemost. 2016;116(08):220-34.
14. Undas A, Wiek I, Stêpień E, Zmudka K, Tracz W. Hyperglycemia is associated with enhanced thrombin formation, platelet activation, and fibrin clot resistance to lysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(8):1590-5.
15. Ohshita K, Yamane K, Hanafusa M, Mori H, Mito K, Okubo M, et al. Elevated white blood cell count in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(2):491-6.
16. Weyer C, Hanson K, Bogardus C, Pratley RE. Long-term changes in insulin action and insulin secretion associated with gain, loss, regain and maintenance of body weight. Diabetologia. 2000;43(1):36-46.
17. Duncan BB, Schmidt MI, Pankow JS, Ballantyne CM, Couper D, Vigo A, et al. Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of type 2 diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes. 2003;52(7):1799-805.
18. Galkina E, Ley K. Leukocyte recruitment and vascular injury in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(2):368-77.