Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most significant causes of patient morbidity and mortality. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is crucial to the prevention of infection in different types of surgery, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of using prophylactic antibiotics at the hospital. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess trends in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for SSI prevention at the hospital. Methods: A retrospective study was performed at Nguyen Dinh Chieu Hospital using an analysis of all surgical records from January to September 2019. The analysis comprised 407 records that met all of the criteria. Data were collected according to socio-demographic characteristics, the clinical presentation of patients with surgical treatment, and trends in using surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Results: Patients enrolled in the study had an average age of 35.2±14.4 years and over half were female (60.7%). Only 0.7% of patients were diagnosed with superficial incisional SSI and no patients were found to be infected with other types of SSI such as deep incisional SSI, organ/space SSI or remote infection. Of 2722 treatments with prophylactic antibiotics, the most common antibiotics used were Amoxicillin/Sulbactam (28.5%) and Metronidazole (27.6%). The majority of patients were given single antibiotic therapy (58.4%) and drugs were administrated via intravenous injection (60.7%). Most prophylactic antibiotics were prescribed at the usual dose and the first dose was usually administered within an hour after surgery (66.1%). Conclusion: The use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the hospital was not based on the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines. Guidelines for the prevention of SSI should be strictly followed at the hospital.