Archive \ Volume.15 2024 Issue 2

Drug Utilization Analysis of Analgesics and Adjuvants Used in Pain Management

, , , , , ,
  1. Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Kampala International University, Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda.
  2. Department of Orthopaedics, Senior consultant Orthopedic surgeon, GK Speciality Hospital, Pogathota, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  3. Biopharmaceutics Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kampala International University, Western Campus, Ishaka-Bushenyi, Uganda.
  4. Department of Pharmaceutics, AM Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Narasaraopet, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  5. Department of Pharmacy Practice, Rao’s College of Pharmacy, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.
  6. Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India.
  7. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

Pain is a multidimensional sensation that arises from a physiologic and psychological response to an unpleasant experience. Pain is an alarm signal that causes an organism to pull away from potentially harmful stimuli, thereby protecting itself from potential damage. In most cases, it is associated with an injury or the possibility of an injury. Here we develop and carry out drug utilization evaluations concerning the analgesics and adjuvants in pain management. The analgesics and adjuvants were further classified to include in the program standards and criteria for the selected drugs and compared with the actual drug utilization. Cross-sectional, observational case study with 377 patients. Patients aged > 18 years and < 80 years experiencing pain were included in the study. Age < 18 years, > 80 years. Pregnant or lactating women were excluded from the study. Out of the total drugs (1362), total antibiotics prescribed were about 45 (3.30%). Among them, 35(2.6%) were prescribed in tablet form, (0.44%) were prescribed in injection form either i.v or i.m, 3(0.22%) were prescribed in powder form (gastolac sachets), 1 (0.07%) was prescribed in ointment form. Cefuroxime + clavulanic acid prescribed was the most commonly used 13 (0.95%). This study reveals a pattern of analgesic use that includes the administration of extensive oral analgesic preparations, a high generic naming of medications, and the appropriate use of these pharmaceuticals concerning the dosage strength, the frequency of treatment, and the duration of therapy.


Downloads: 200
Views: 631

How to cite:
Vancouver
Bukke SPN, Gopalakrishnaiah T, Onohuean H, Rao PBB, Nandimandalam N, Babu MR, et al. Drug Utilization Analysis of Analgesics and Adjuvants Used in Pain Management. Arch Pharm Pract. 2024;15(2):4-11. https://doi.org/10.51847/wHhW6w9i1C
APA
Bukke, S. P. N., Gopalakrishnaiah, T., Onohuean, H., Rao, P. B. B., Nandimandalam, N., Babu, M. R., & Kumar, K. P. (2024). Drug Utilization Analysis of Analgesics and Adjuvants Used in Pain Management. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 15(2), 4-11. https://doi.org/10.51847/wHhW6w9i1C

Download Citation
References
  1. Lumley MA, Cohen JL, Borszcz GS, Cano A, Radcliffe AM, Porter LS, et al. Pain and emotion: A biopsychosocial review of recent research. J Clin Psychol. 2011;67(9):942-68. doi:10.1002/JCLP.20816
  2. Jongchanapong A, Thongphichai W, Wasana PW, Sukrong S, Suttisri R, Amnuoypol S, et al. Antinociceptive efficacy of Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore, a Thai medicinal plant, and its CNS safety profiles. J Tradit Complement Med. 2023;13(1):81-92. doi:10.1016/J.JTCME.2022.11.001
  3. Craig KD. A child in pain: A psychologist’s perspective on changing priorities in scientific understanding and clinical care. Paediatr Neonatal Pain. 2020;2(2):40-9. doi:10.1002/PNE2.12034
  4. Barber TX. Toward a theory of pain: Relief of chronic pain by prefrontal leucotomy, opiates, placebos, and hypnosis. Psychol Bull. 1959;56(6):430-60. doi:10.1037/H0046676
  5. Mitchell SA, Majuta LA, Mantyh PW. New insights in understanding and treating bone fracture pain. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2018;16:325-32. doi:10.1007/S11914-018-0446-8
  6. Woo AK. Depression and anxiety in pain. Rev Pain. 2010;4(1):8-12. doi:10.1177/204946371000400103
  7. Raja SN, Carr DB, Cohen M, Finnerup NB, Flor H, Gibson S, et al. The revised international association for the study of pain definition of pain: Concepts, challenges, and compromises. Pain. 2020;161(9):1976-82. doi:10.1097/J.PAIN.0000000000001939
  8. Apkarian AV, Baliki MN, Farmer MA. Predicting transition to chronic pain. Curr Opin Neurol. 2013;26(4):360-7. doi:10.1097/WCO.0B013E32836336AD
  9. Borsheski R, Johnson QL. Pain management in the geriatric population. Mo Med. 2014;111(6):508-11.
  10. Voepel-Lewis T, Zanotti J, Dammeyer JA, Merkel S. Reliability and validity of the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability behavioral tool in assessing acute pain in critically ill patients. Am J Crit Care. 2010;19(1):55-61. doi:10.4037/AJCC2010624
  11. Singh VK, Shetty YC, Salins N, Jain P. Prescription pattern of drugs used for neuropathic pain and adherence to NeuPSIG guidelines in cancer. Indian J Palliat Care. 2020;26(1):13-8. doi:10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_172_19
  12. Aggarwal R, Ranganathan P. Study designs: Part 2–descriptive studies. Perspect Clin Res. 2019;10(1):34-6. doi:10.4103/PICR.PICR_154_18
  13. Abdolrazaghnejad A, Banaie M, Tavakoli N, Safdari M, Rajabpour-Sanati A. Pain management in the emergency department: A review article on options and methods. Adv J Emerg Med. 2018;2(4):e45. doi:10.22114/AJEM.V0I0.93
  14. In J. Introduction of a pilot study. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2017;70(6):601-5. doi:10.4097/KJAE.2017.70.6.601
  15. Gordon DB, Dahl JL, Miaskowski C, McCarberg B, Todd KH, Paice JA, et al. American pain society recommendations for improving the quality of acute and cancer pain management: American pain society quality of care task force. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(14):1574-80. doi:10.1001/ARCHINTE.165.14.1574
  16. Fernandes CM. Emergency department overcrowding: What is our response to the “new normal”? Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(10):1096-7. doi:10.1111/J.1553-2712.2003.TB00580.X
  17. Patino CM, Ferreira JC. Inclusion and exclusion criteria in research studies: Definitions and why they matter. J Bras Pneumol. 2018;44:84. doi:10.1590/S1806-37562018000000088
  18. Montes de Oca M, Menezes A, Wehrmeister FC, Lopez Varela MV, Casas A, Ugalde L, et al. Adherence to inhaled therapies of COPD patients from seven Latin American countries: The LASSYC study. PloS one. 2017;12(11):e0186777. doi:10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0186777
  19. Al Jundi A, Sakka S. Protocol writing in clinical research. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(11):ZE10-3. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/21426.8865
  20. Toy A, Eaton KA, Santini A. An introduction to research for primary dental care clinicians: Part 2: Stage 4. Planning the Study. Prim Dent Care. 2011;18(1):36-40. doi:10.1308/135576111794065810
  21. Farahmand S, Shafazand S, Alinia E, Bagheri-Hariri S, Baratloo A. Pain management using acupuncture method in migraine headache patients; A single blinded randomized clinical trial. Anesthesiol Pain Med. 2018;8(6):e81688. doi:10.5812/AAPM.81688

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.